Background: Overweight children have greater circulating concentrations of markers of inflammation (MOI) than do lean children. Whether adiposity influences the postprandial MOI response is unknown. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relations of fasting and postprandial MOI with total and regional adiposity and insulin sensitivity in children. Design: Fifty-nine children aged 7-12 y were assessed for C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNF-R2) in the fasted state and after a mixed meal. Insulin sensitivity, body composition, and abdominal adipose tissue distribution were assessed with a frequently sampled intravenous- glucose-tolerance test, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography, respectively.Results: Central adipose measures were not independently associated with fasting MOI, although they were independently inversely associated with the postprandial sTNF-R2 response (r = -0.30 to -0.37, P = 0.02-0.006). The inverse association between intraabdom- inal adipose tissue and the postprandial CRP response was nearly significant (r = -0.27, P = 0.05). Insulin sensitivity was not associated with fasting or postprandial CRP or sTNF-R2; however, there was a positive relation between insulin sensitivity and fasting IL-6 (r = 0.27, P = 0.03), which was attenuated after adjustment for lean body mass (r = 0.25, P = 0.08). Conclusions: Excess adiposity is associated with both fasting and postprandial MOI. The postprandial MOI response may be influenced by central adiposity in children. The positive association of insulin sensitivity with IL-6 warrants further study. © 2009 American Society for Nutrition.