Combined effects of smoking, coffee, and NSAIDs on Parkinson's disease risk

Academic Article


  • Inverse associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with cigarette smoking, coffee drinking, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use have been reported individually, but their joint effects have not been examined. To quantify associations with PD for the individual, two-way and three-way combinations of these factors, a case-control association study with 1,186 PD patients and 928 controls was conducted. The study setting was the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking, coffee, and NSAID consumption. Odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking, coffee, and over the counter NSAID use as individual factors exhibited significantly reduced risks of 20% to 30%. The two-way and three-way combinations were associated with risk reduction of 37% to 49%, and 62%, respectively. Smoking and coffee exhibited significant inverse risk trends with increasing cumulative exposures, suggesting dose-response relations. With respect to the combination of all three exposures, persons who were at the highest exposure strata for smoking and coffee and used NSAIDs had an estimated 87% reduction in risk (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.06-0.29). Whether this finding reflects true biologic protection needs to be investigated. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Movement Disorders  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Powers KM; Kay DM; Factor SA; Zabetian CP; Higgins DS; Samii A; Nutt JG; Griffith A; Leis B; Roberts JW
  • Start Page

  • 88
  • End Page

  • 95
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 1