The ganglioside composition of six human medulloblastomas was analyzed. The characterization was performed by thin-layer chromatography, sialidase hydrolysis, and immunological staining with a panel of characterized antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies. The total ganglioside content ranged from 60 to 1,130 nmol of ganglioside sialic acid/g wet weight. Neuronal gangliosides (gangliotetraose series) were found in varying amounts in all medulloblastomas. Gangliosides of the neolactotetraose series (3'-LM1 and LD1) were present in all specimens, and the lactotetraose series ganglioside 3'-isoLM1 was found in all cases showing astrocytic differentiation. This supports our previous findings that 3'-isoLM1 is a marker for proliferating astroglial cells.