PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies have shown an association between hyperuricemia and essential hypertension in children, presenting the possibility for serum uric acid level to serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and potential treatment target. RECENT FINDINGS: The proposed mechanism of uric acid-induced hypertension is biphasic, with a reversible early phase, implying added significance for new-onset hypertension. Current evidence shows a strong correlation between uric acid level and essential hypertension, supporting its use in diagnosis. Small studies have shown that the use of uric acid-lowering agents allopurinol and probenecid can lower blood pressure in adolescents. These medications require further study in large populations and careful consideration of their side-effect profiles prior to clinical use as antihypertensive agents. Recent studies have also linked dietary fructose intake to hyperuricemia and hypertension, but the clinical effect of fructose reduction on blood pressure has not been confirmed. SUMMARY: Current evidence supports use of serum uric acid level as a biomarker for diagnosis of essential hypertension in children. More research is needed to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic means of serum uric acid reduction prior to clinical use as a therapy for hypertension. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.