There is a continued need to improve the state of preparedness for a potential influenza pandemic in the United States despite the publication of a pandemic influenza plan by the Department of Health and Human Services. Of particular importance are the sense of urgency for a coordinated response plan, an allocation of adequate funds to deal with this issue, and the need for a national leader to coordinate the development and execution of a national plan, including its relationship to the control of seasonal influenza. In addition, an infrastructure needs to be established in the United States to enable the rapid development and large-scale production of a safe and effective vaccine for new influenza strains; methods to treat influenza pneumonia need to be evaluated; a coordinated public health response needs to be defined; a nationally developed blueprint to deal with logistics of pandemic prevention is required; and there is a need to establish reliable communication systems on a national and local basis, to provide accurate information to the lay public, health care workers, and the agricultural sector. © 2006 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.