The second annual Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Conference, which took place in February 2007 in Arlington, Virginia, focused on recent progress in basic and clinical research regarding preparedness for outbreaks of influenza. Sporadic outbreaks of avian influenza A in Asia and the Middle East remind us that the threat of another influenza pandemic remains real. Although the exact mechanisms underlying avian influenza A human pathogenicity remain unclear, preclinical studies in animal models provide insights into the mechanisms of avian influenza A virus infection and transmission from bird to human and, rarely, from human to human. With regard to prevention, developmental studies of adjuvant-supplemented vaccines indicate promising immunogenicity and cross-reactivity. The pipeline of new antiviral agents in development is also increasing, including a new neuraminidase inhibitor and agents aimed at completely new targets. Global strategic planning efforts focus on assuring sufficient stocks of vaccines and antiviral agents, as well as timely nonpharmacological interventions to potentially delay or contain spread of an outbreak. These initiatives will also help control outbreaks of seasonal influenza. © 2008 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.