An epitope common to all classes of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) was detected by reactivity of MuLVs with a rat monoclonal antibody (MAb) termed 83A25. The antibody is of the immunoglobulin G2a isotype and was derived after fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a Fischer rat immunized with a Friend polytropic MuLV. The antibody reacted with nearly all members of the ecotropic, polytropic, xenotropic, and amphotropic classes of MuLVs. Unreactive viruses were limited to the Friend ecotropic MuLV, Rauscher MuLV, and certain recombinant derivatives of Friend ecotropic MuLV. The presence of an epitope common to nearly all MuLV facilitated a direct quantitative focal immunofluorescence assay for MuLVs, including the amphotropic MuLVs for which no direct assay had been available. Previously described MAbs which react with all classes of MuLVs have been limited to those which react with virion core or transmembrane proteins. In contrast, protein immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses established that the epitope reactive with MAb 83A25 resides in the envelope glycoproteins of the viruses. Structural comparison of reactive and nonreactive Friend polytropic viruses localized the epitope near the carboxyl terminus of the glycoprotein. The epitope served as a target for neutralization of all classes of MuLV with MAb 83A25. The efficiency of neutralization varied with different MuLV isolates but did not correlate with MuLV interference groups.