Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder of immune dysregulation, characterized by end-organ damage from lymphocytic infiltration and macrophage activation. All known mutations associated with the HLH occur in genes critical in the perforin-granzyme pathway. Herein, we report HLH occurring in 2 female triplet infants who also had associated human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) infections. The subjects had identical novel compound-heterozygous mutations in the Perform alleles, resulting in undetectable perform expression and NK-cell cytotoxicity. Both infants also had evidence of infection with HHV-8. These reports are, to our knowledge, the first cases of HLH in triplets and the first reported cases of HHV-8 infection associated with HLH in non-renal transplant and non-HIV-infected subjects. © 2005 by The American Society of Hematology.