OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of abnormal cervical cytologic results is time consuming and costly. Most patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)-cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) Pap smear results require an excisional procedure for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. "See and treat" is a surgical procedure that involves a loop electrosurgical excisional procedure (LEEP) simultaneously to diagnose and to treat premalignant cervical disease in one visit. This procedure eliminates a second visit that typically is required for treatment. Data is lacking on the incidence of CIN 2 and CIN 3 in patients with an HSIL (CIN 2) Pap smear result. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of CIN 2 and CIN 3 in patients with an HSIL (CIN 2) Pap smear using a see-and-treat protocol. METHODS: Women referred from local health departments to our university-based colposcopy clinic for evaluation of an HSIL (CIN 2) Pap smear result were evaluated for inclusion in a see and treat protocol. All eligible patients underwent colposcopy to rule out an obvious cervical carcinoma followed by an immediate LEEP to remove the transformation zone. A colposcopic impression was made using the Reid colposcopic index. Pathologic specimens were analyzed for the presence of CIN and the incidence of CIN 2 and CIN 3 was determined. RESULTS: To date, 51 patients have been enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria included age less than 19 years, pregnancy, or medical contraindications. The mean age of the patients was 26 years (range, 19-45 years). Forty-seven percent were white, 47% were black, and 6% were Hispanic. Of the 51 patients who underwent LEEP, 43 of 51 (85%) had satisfactory colposcopy and no patient had a lesion suspicious for cervical carcinoma. The average Reid colposcopic index was 3.5. Of the 51 LEEP specimens, 4 of 51 had no evidence of CIN (8%), 4 of 51 (8%) had CIN 1, 18 of 51 (35%) had CIN 2, and 25 of 51 (49%) had CIN 3. Eighty-four percent of patients had either CIN 2 or CIN 3, resulting in an overtreatment rate (CIN 1 or less) of 16%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a see and treat protocol for patients with HSIL (CIN 2) Pap smear results may be an acceptable treatment option because of a high incidence of CIN 2 and CIN 3.