The aim is to evaluate disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with fallopian tube carcinoma (FTCA) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. An Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review identified 38 patients with FTCA that received adjuvant chemotherapy following primary surgery from 1975 to 2001. Median age was 56 (range 36-78) and 95% of patients were white. Twenty patients (53%) had FIGO stage III/IV FTCA. Seventeen patients underwent second-look laparotomy, 8 (47%) patients were found to have disease. Adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens consisted of melphalan in 11 patients, platinum-based chemotherapy without paclitaxel in 17 patients, and the combination of paclitaxel and platinum in 10 patients. Although DFS was similar for the three chemotherapy cohorts (P= 0.19), patients receiving paclitaxel had superior OS compared to patients receiving either melphalan (P= 0.02) or platinum without paclitaxel (P= 0.04). Of the twenty patients with stage III/IV disease, 55% of patients had optimal cytoreduction performed at their initial surgery. Both median DFS, 68 versus 50 months (P= 0.14) and OS, 73 versus 50 months (P= 0.12) were greater in patients with optimal cytoreduction. When compared to historical chemotherapeutic regimens, the combination of paclitaxel and platinum has superior efficacy for the management of patients with FTCA. Although not statistically significant in our study, optimal cytoreduction likely improves both DFS and OS and should be the goal of all patients surgically managed for FTCA.