© 2016 Taylor & Francis. ABSTRACT: Currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are very successful at preventing persistent HPV infection and premalignant cervical lesions. In part due to the unique aspects of HPV immunogenicity and high levels of efficacy no immune correlate has been identified for HPV vaccination. Serum neutralizing antibodies are used to measure vaccine response, but their role as a correlate has not been verified, and this theory fails to explain the prevention of HPV related non-mucosal lesions. Identifying a true correlate would aid in future work in this area but will be difficult in the setting of a highly efficacious vaccine.