The potential role for dopamine in the subthalamic nucleus was investigated in human postmortem tissue sections by examining; (1) immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis; (2) binding of [3H]-SCH23390 (D1-like), [3H]-YM- 09151-2 (D2-like), and [3H]-mazindol (dopamine uptake); and (3) expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase was visualized in Bouin's-fixed tissue by using a monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin-complex method. The cellular localization of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs was visualized by using a cocktail of human specific oligonucleotide probes radiolabeled with 35S-dATP. Inspection of immunostained tissue revealed a fine network of tyrosine hydroxylase- immunostained fibers traversing the nucleus; no immunopositive cells were detected. Examination of emulsion-coated tissue sections processed for D1 and D2 receptor mRNA revealed, as expected, an abundance of D1 and D2 mRNA- positive cells in the caudate nucleus and putamen. However, no D1 or D2 receptor mRNA-expressing cells were detected in the subthalamic nucleus. Further, semiquantitative analysis of D1-like, D2-like and dopamine uptake ligand binding similarly revealed an enrichment of specific binding in the caudate nucleus and putamen but not within the subthalamic nucleus. However, a weak, albeit specific, signal for [3H]-SCH23390 and [3H]-mazindol was detected in the subthalamic nucleus, suggesting that the human subthalamic nucleus may receive a weak dopaminergic input. As weak D1-like binding is detected in the subthalamic nucleus, and subthalamic neurons do not express dopamine D1 or D2 receptor mRNAs, together these data suggest that the effects of dopaminergic agents on the activity of human subthalamic neurons may be indirect and mediated via interaction with dopamine D1-like receptors. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.