Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) refers to a clinical condition in which a class of corticosteroids increases the susceptibility of bones to fracture. Numerous recent studies have improved our understanding of the underlying biology of this condition, whereas data from randomized controlled trials have provided clinicians with more options for prevention of GIO. Objective: To review the pathophysiology and epidemiology of GIO, as well as current pharmacologic treatment and prevention modalities available. To review the state of healthcare provider concordance with GIO prevention guidelines. Methods: Representative examples of various cellular and molecular processes underlying GIO were included, with an emphasis towards more recent discoveries. The data used to describe the epidemiology of GIO were derived from both randomized controlled studies and observational studies, framed through a discussion of known osteoporosis risk factors. Results/conclusion: Progress has been made in clarifying the pathophysiologic mechanisms that result in GIO. Although the options for preventions and treatment of GIO continue to expand, provider compliance with preventive measures remains suboptimal. © 2009 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.