The ability to respond to specific antigens develops in a programmed fashion. Although the antibody repertoire in adults is presumably generated by stochastic combinatorial joining of rearranged heavy variable, diversity, and joining (VH-DH-JH) and light (VL-JL) chains, experimental evidence in the mouse has shown nonrandom utilization of variable gene segments during ontogeny and in response to specific antigens. In this study, we have performed sequence analysis of 104-day human fetal liver-derived, randomly isolated constant region Cμ+ transcripts and demonstrate a consistent preference during fetal life for a small subset of three highly conserved VH3 family gene segments. In addition, the data show that this preferential gene segment utilization extends to the DHQ52 and the JH3 and JH4 loci. Sequence analysis of two "sterile" DH-JH transcripts suggests that transcriptional activation of the JH-proximal DHQ52 element may precede initiation of DH-JH rearrangement and influence fetal DH utilization. Sequence comparisons reveal striking nucleotide polymorphism in allelic gene segments which is poorly reflected in the peptide sequence, implying considerable evolutionary selection pressure. Although vertebrate species utilize a variety of strategies to generate their antibody repertoire, preferential utilization of VH3 elements is consistently found during early development. These data support the hypothesis that VH3 gene segments play an essential role in the development of the immune response.