Immunoglobulin junctional diversity is concentrated in the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDR-H3), which often plays a dominant role in antigen binding. The range of CDR-H3 lengths in mouse is shorter than in human, and thus the murine repertoire could be presumed to be a subset of the human one. To test this presumption, we analyzed 4751 human and 2170 murine unique, functional, published CDR-H3 intervals. Although tyrosine, glycine, and serine were found to predominate in both species, the human sequences contained fewer tyrosine residues, more proline residues, and more hydrophobic residues (p<0.001, respectively). While changes in amino acid utilization as a function of CDR-H3 length followed similar trends in both species, murine and human CDR-H3 intervals of identical length were found to differ from each other. These differences reflect both divergence of germline diversity and joining gene sequence and somatic selection. Together, these factors promote the production of a rather uniform repertoire in mice of tyrosine-enriched CDR-H3 loops with stabilized hydrogen bond-ladders versus a much more diverse repertoire in human that contains CDR-H3 loops sculpted by the presence of intra-chain disulfide bonds due to germline-encoded cysteine residues as well as the enhanced presence of somatically generated proline residues that preclude hydrogen bond ladder formation. Thus, despite the presumed need to recognize a similar range of antigen epitopes, the murine CDR-H3 repertoire is clearly distinct from its human counterpart in its amino acid composition and its predicted range of structures. These findings represent a benchmark to which CDR-H3 repertoires can be compared to better characterize and understand the shaping of the CDR-H3 repertoire over evolution and during immune responses. This information may also be useful for the design of species-specific CDR-H3 sequences in synthetic antibody libraries. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.