Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a constitutive mucosal lymphoid tissue adjacent to major airways in some mammalian species, including rats and rabbits, but not humans or mice. A related tissue, inducible BALT (iBALT), is an ectopic lymphoid tissue that is formed upon inflammation or infection in both mice and humans and can be found throughout the lung. Both BALT and iBALT acquire antigens from the airways and initiate local immune responses and maintain memory cells in the lungs. Here, we discuss the development and function of BALT and iBALT in the context of pulmonary immunity to infectious agents, tumors, and allergens as well as autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases of the lung. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.