© 2015 Springer Basel. The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is a complicated and complex process that involves phenotypic abnormalities of a variety of cell types and dysregulations of multiple signaling pathways. There are numerous genetic, epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms that have been identified to participate in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, efficacious therapeutics developed from these studies have been disappointingly limited. In the past several years, a group of new molecules, i.e., non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), has been increasingly appreciated to have critical roles in the pathological progression of lung fibrosis. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on the roles of ncRNAs in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We analyze the translational potential of this group of molecules in treating lung fibrosis. We also discuss challenges and future opportunities of studying and utilizing ncRNAs in lung fibrosis.