Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

Academic Article


  • CONTEXT: Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. RESULTS: Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P < .001). After 1 week of the low-additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P < .05 for all). Similarly, high-phosphorus diets in mice significantly increased blood FGF23, osteopontin and osteocalcin, lowered sclerostin, and decreased bone mineral density (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced phosphorus content of processed foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.
  • Keywords

  • Adult, Animals, Biomarkers, Bone Density, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Bone and Bones, Diet, Feeding Behavior, Female, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Food Additives, Genetic Markers, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Middle Aged, Minerals, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, Phosphorus Compounds, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Gutiérrez OM; Luzuriaga-McPherson A; Lin Y; Gilbert LC; Ha S-W; Beck GR
  • Start Page

  • 4264
  • End Page

  • 4271
  • Volume

  • 100
  • Issue

  • 11