Eight hundred fifty-five living related donor transplant recipients were analyzed according to 15 potential risk factors with regard to patient and graft survival according to immunosuppression. Group I, 1968 to 1983, (n = 440 patients) received azathioprine and prednisone; group II, 1984 to 1987, (n = 229 patients) received triple therapy-azathioprine, prednisone, and cyclosporine; and group III, 1988-1991, (n = 186 patients), quadruple therapy-azathioprine, prednisone, cyclosporine, and Minnesota antilymphocyte globulin. Three important risk factors included immunosuppression, tissue typing, and race. Groups II and III had improved allograft survival over group I (p = 0.03). Patients with two haplotype matches had similar survival in all three groups. Kidney survival in one-haplotype-matched recipients improved in group II and was equal to that of the two-haplotype-matched patients in group III. Cyclosporine improved allograft survival in both races when combined with azathioprine and prednisone. Quadruple therapy improved early survival in one-haplotype black patients, even though long-term results remained better in whites. Cyclosporine did not improve graft survival in two-haplotype recipients. The addition of cyclosporine and quadruple therapy did not increase morbidity and mortality rates.