PURPOSE: To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements. RESULTS: In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R(2) = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R(2) = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively). CONCLUSION: AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of fistulas that are unlikely to develop optimally.