Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between January 2000 and December 2005. SETTING: The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) is a collaboration of 15 HIV cohort studies from Canada, Europe, and the United States. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 546 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive patients initiating ART with efavirenz, nevirapine, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, or abacavir as third drugs in combination with a zidovudine and lamivudine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short-term (24-week) virologic failure (>500 copies/ml) and clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation (incident AIDS-defining event, death, and a composite measure of these two outcomes). RESULTS: Compared with efavirenz as initial third drug, short-term virologic failure was more common with all other third drugs evaluated; nevirapine (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.58-2.22), lopinavir/ritonavir (1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.57), nelfinavir (3.20, 95% CI = 2.74-3.74), and abacavir (2.13, 95% CI = 1.82-2.50). However, the rate of clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation appeared higher only with nevirapine (adjusted hazard ratio for composite outcome measure 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.56) and abacavir (1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.48). CONCLUSION: Among antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating therapy, between-ART regimen, differences in short-term virologic failure do not necessarily translate to differences in clinical outcomes. Our results should be interpreted with caution because of the possibility of residual confounding by indication.
  • Published In

  • AIDS  Journal
  • Keywords

  • Adolescent, Adult, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Disease-Free Survival, Drug Interactions, Drug Resistance, Viral, Drug Therapy, Combination, Epidemiologic Methods, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, RNA, Viral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Treatment Outcome, Viral Load, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC); Mugavero MJ; May M; Harris R; Saag MS; Costagliola D; Egger M; Phillips A; Günthard HF; Dabis F
  • Start Page

  • 2481
  • End Page

  • 2492
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • 18