Objectives. Prostate cancer will account for 334,500 new cases and 41,800 deaths among men in the United States in 1997. Patients and physicians are faced with many concerns related to benefits and side effects of alternative treatments, educational needs, emotional support, and costs of care. Support groups for prostate cancer patients have been established to help satisfy needs in these areas. Therefore, we addressed three issues among patients who belong to a prostate cancer support group as well as among a second group of urologists who treat prostate cancer: (1) goals for prostate cancer treatment, (2) information that is given and recalled about the disease and therapy, and (3) extent to which educational and emotional needs are being met. Methods. Random telephone surveys were made of 1000 men with prostate cancer who belong to the prostate cancer support group US TOO, the largest prostate cancer support group in the United States, and 200 urologists who provide care to men with prostate cancer. The surveys were conducted by the Louis Harris and Associates survey research firm. Results. About four fifths of patients and urologists prefer aggressive therapy for prostate cancer. Patient goals with therapy included preservation of quality of life (45%), extension of life (29%), and delaying disease progression (13%), whereas physicians overwhelmingly focused on treatment efficacy (86%), with side effects (45%) and costs (29%) being secondary considerations. Urologists and patients differed markedly in the description of the patient- physician discussion. Whereas almost 100% of physicians stated that they always discussed important considerations such as options for no therapy, life expectancy with and without therapy, patient preferences, costs, and changes in sexual function, only about one fifth of patients recalled similar discussions. Patients and physicians both believed that physicians were an excellent source of educational support, but often did not report provision of emotional support. Although support groups were viewed as good providers of educational and emotional support by 85% to 90% of patients, physicians appeared to underestimate the benefit of support groups in these areas. Conclusions. Patients who belong to US TOO have many emotional and educational needs that are not currently being fulfilled by physicians. Although the goals of therapy are viewed similarly by patients and physicians, much of the important cancer and treatment-related information that physicians report they have provided is not recalled by patients. Policy makers would be wise to devise systematic strategies such as shared decision- making tools and better linkages to support groups to ensure that patients' needs are being met.