OBJECTIVE: Alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism, lactic acidemia, bone disorders, and abnormal body fat distribution have been recognized recently as frequent complications associated with HIV-1 infection and potent antiretroviral therapy, but limited data are available regarding the appropriate management of these disorders. These recommendations were developed to guide physicians actively involved in HIV care in the management of metabolic complications that occur primarily within the context of potent antiretroviral therapy. PARTICIPANTS: A 12-member panel representing international expertise in HIV-1 patient care, antiretroviral therapy, and endocrine and metabolic disorders was selected in the spring of 2000 by the International AIDS Society-USA, a not-for-profit physician education organization. Panel members met in closed meetings beginning in May 2000. All work was funded by the International AIDS Society-USA; the panel members are not compensated for their participation. EVIDENCE: The panel reviewed published results of clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science studies and data and abstracts presented at research conferences, primarily from 1997 to 2002. The panel also considered studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of similar metabolic abnormalities in noninfected persons. Emphasis was placed on results from prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials when available. PROCESS: For each metabolic complication, 1 or more member(s) reviewed and presented all available evidence to the panel, and then wrote a summary of the evidence and preliminary recommendations. Final recommendations were determined by full group consensus. The summaries were combined into a single working document and all panel members edited and approved all subsequent drafts. CONCLUSIONS: Carefully controlled studies to determine the incidence, etiology, risk factors, and most appropriate treatments for metabolic complications in HIV-1 infection are urgently needed. In the absence of these data, and to prevent acute illness and mitigate long-term risks, the panel recommends routine assessment and monitoring of glucose and lipid levels and assessment and monitoring of lactic acidemia and bone abnormalities if clinical signs or symptoms are detected. With the exception of body fat distribution abnormalities, specific treatments for these complications are also recommended. Successful long-term antiretroviral therapy will require diligent monitoring and preemptive treatment of metabolic complications to optimize the risk-benefit ratio of antiretroviral therapies.