Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients respond poorly to hepatitis B vaccination. Records of 194 HIV-infected patients were reviewed for factors associated with successful hepatitis B vaccination. Thirty-four patients (17.5%) developed a protective antibody response. In a logistic regression model, only a plasma HIV RNA level of <400 copies/mL at the time of vaccination was associated with a protective antibody response (P = .003). © 2005 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.