Calcium and vitamin D are the mainstays of nutritional intervention for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, conditions that alter nutritional status as well as other nutrients should be considered when diagnosing and treating osteoporosis and osteopenia. Current research supports the early diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa to prevent associated bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Weight restoration in patients with anorexia nervosa is central to bone mass stabilization. Other nutritional considerations include nutrients such as vitamin B-12 and vitamin K that may reduce fracture risk by increasing bone mineral density as well as the improvement of bone microarchitecture. Diets high in fruits and vegetables contribute nutrients such as magnesium associated with bone health and may also produce an alkaline environment, reducing calcium excretion and thus improving bone density. Copyright © 2007 by Current Medicine Group LLC.