IRES inhibition induces terminal differentiation and synchronized death in triple-negative breast cancer and glioblastoma cells

Academic Article


  • © 2016, The Author(s). Internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation is a specialized mode of protein synthesis which malignant cells depend on to survive adverse microenvironmental conditions. Our lab recently reported the identification of a group of compounds which selectively interfere with IRES-mediated translation, completely blocking de novo IGF1R synthesis, and differentially modulating synthesis of the two c-Myc isoforms. Here, we examine the phenotypic consequences of sustained IRES inhibition in human triple-negative breast carcinoma and glioblastoma cells. A sudden loss of viability affects the entire tumor cell population after ∼72-h continuous exposure to the lead compound. The extraordinarily steep dose-response relationship (Hill-Slope coefficients −15 to −35) and extensive physical connections established between the cells indicate that the cells respond to IRES inhibition collectively as a population rather than as individual cells. Prior to death, the treated cells exhibit prominent features of terminal differentiation, with marked gains in cytoskeletal organization, planar polarity, and formation of tight junctions or neuronal processes. In addition to IGF1R and Myc, specific changes in connexin 43, BiP, CHOP, p21, and p27 also correlate with phenotypic outcome. This unusual mode of tumor cell death is absolutely dependent on exceeding a critical threshold in cell density, suggesting that a quorum-sensing mechanism may be operative. Death of putative tumor stem cells visualized in situ helps to explain the inability of tumor cells to recover and repopulate once the compound is removed. Together, these findings support the concept that IRES-mediated translation is of fundamental importance to maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype and survival of undifferentiated malignant cells.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Vaklavas C; Grizzle WE; Choi H; Meng Z; Zinn KR; Shrestha K; Blume SW
  • Start Page

  • 13247
  • End Page

  • 13264
  • Volume

  • 37
  • Issue

  • 10