HDL mimetics have been constructed from a number of peptides and proteins with varying structures, all of which bind lipids found in HDL. HDL mimetics containing a peptide or protein have been constructed with as few as 4 and as many as 243 amino acid residues. Some HDL mimetics have been constructed with lipid but without a peptide or protein component. Some HDL mimetics promote cholesterol efflux, some have been shown to have a remarkable ability to bind oxidized lipids compared to human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Many of these peptides have been shown to have antiinflammatory properties. Based on studies in a number of animal models and in early human clinical trials, HDL mimetics appear to have promise as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.