Energy restriction is associated with decreased plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, whereas long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA) are strongly associated with insulin resistance. Our hypothesis is that energy restriction reduces LCSFA associated with plasma lipids in adult aging rats. Plasma LCSFA associated with triglycerides (TG), nonesterified fatty acids and phospholipids, as well as glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, TG and adipocyte glucose transport and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) content were determined in aging, energy restricted [ER; 60% of ad libitum (AL) intake] and AL rats. In ER rats, plasma glucose concentrations were lower than in AL rats at each age. In contrast, body weight and plasma TG concentrations increased with age in both groups, but especially in the AL rats. In AL rats, combined LCSFA associated with plasma lipids was greater than in ER rats (P < 0.0001). Adipocyte insulin-stimulated glucose transport decreased in both groups with age but was most severe in AL rats, whereas GLUT4 was reduced only in AL rats. In ER rats it is possible that decreased plasma LCSFA contribute to reduced blood glucose concentrations as well as increased adipocyte GLUT4 compared with AL rats.