OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the role of physical activity (PA) and energy intake on weight maintenance among former University of Alabama at Birmingham EatRight Weight Management Program participants. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Eighty-nine former participants completed follow-up visits > or =1 year after completing EatRight. BMI was calculated using measured height and weight. Diet intake was estimated from 4-day food records. PA was assessed using a module from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Cut-off points were chosen based on the distribution of minutes of activity. For moderate and total activity, cut-off points were 0, 1 to 30, 31 to 60, and >60 minutes. For vigorous activity, the categories were 0, 1 to 20, 21 to 30, and >30 minutes. General linear models determined the association of PA with change in weight at follow-up controlling for gender and total energy intake (kcal/d). RESULTS: At follow-up, 80% (n = 71) of participants maintained (regained <5% of program end weight) their body weight and 20% had gained weight. Mean weight change was 1.0 +/- 6.5 kg. Maintainers consumed 384 fewer kcal/d on average. Maintainers had a lower energy density dietary pattern (1.58 vs. 2.01 kcal/g, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in PA min/d reported by maintainers and gainers. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that, despite being minimally active, weight-reduced individuals can successfully maintain their newly achieved body weight with appropriate caloric intake. Adopting a lower calorie, low energy density dietary pattern may reduce the amount of PA that is truly necessary for weight maintenance.