© 2015 Elsevier Inc. The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has led to the need to identify patients at risk for HCC so that a program of screening can be undertaken. Screening for HCC has led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and thus has aided in initiating optimal medical treatment earlier in the disease course. Advances in radiological techniques and the identification of more accurate serum tests to diagnose HCC continue to be important areas of study and exploration. In particular, there have been efforts to develop new tumor markers to aid in the diagnosis of HCC and guide therapy of tumors.