We sought to determine the effects of interleukin-2 administered in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4+ T cells in the gut. Lymphocytes from whole blood, colon, and terminal ileum of HIV-infected adults treated with interleukin-2 and ART or ART alone were examined. There were no differences between groups in the proportion of CD4+ T cells or in expression of CD25 or Ki67 by CD4 T cells in the gut. Although IL-2 administration leads to expansion of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, there is no alteration in the proportion or activation of CD4 T cells in the gut mucosa. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.