Bone changes and fracture risk in individuals infected with HIV.

Academic Article


  • The life expectancy of individuals infected with HIV has improved greatly since the institution of combination antiretroviral therapy. However, many metabolic derangements have been discovered with long-term combination antiretroviral treatment, including lipodystrophy; insulin resistance; and, more recently, abnormal bone metabolism. It is well-documented that bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-positive patients is lower compared with the expected BMD in non-HIV-positive patients. The underlying cause of lower BMD is unknown but is thought to be a multifactorial process. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effect of antiretroviral exposure and duration of treatment, antiretroviral type, and cumulative HIV viral exposure on bone health. Here we review the bone changes that occur with HIV infection and treatment.
  • Published In


  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Bone Density, Bone Density Conservation Agents, Female, Fractures, Spontaneous, HIV Infections, Humans, Male, Osteoporosis, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Warriner AH; Mugavero MJ
  • Start Page

  • 163
  • End Page

  • 169
  • Volume

  • 12
  • Issue

  • 3