Osteoporosis, the presence of either low bone mineral density or a history of a fragility fracture, is known to be associated with an increased risk of future fracture. Fracture prevention is possible through use of both nonpharmacologic and prescription treatments. Despite recent controversy regarding the safety of calcium supplementation and the appropriate dosing of calcium and vitamin D, calcium and vitamin D remain an important part of bone health. However, prescription osteoporosis treatments should be considered for those at higher risk for fracture, and there are currently several treatment options available. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.