Circadian misalignment has been implicated in the development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Time-of-day-dependent synchronization of organisms with their environment is mediated by circadian clocks. This cell autonomous mechanism has been identified within all cardiovascular-relevant cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Recent molecular-and genetic-based studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences multiple myocardial processes, including transcription, signaling, growth, metabolism, and contractile function. Following an appreciation of its physiological roles, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of heart disease in response to adverse stresses, such as ischemia/reperfusion, in animal models. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent advances regarding the roles of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock in both myocardial physiology and pathophysiology (ie, health and disease). © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.