The antihypertensive efficacy of N-[(S)-1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propyl]l-alanyl-l-proline (enalapril maleate) was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind trial in 23 patients with mild low-renin essential hypertension ranging in age from 32 to 70 yr (20 were black and 3 were white). All underwent a 4-wk washout-placebo phase and were then assigned to a dosing schedule of either 10 mg enalapril once daily, 5 mg enalapril twice daily, or placebo twice daily for 12 wk. Conditional on diastolic pressure, the dose was increased at 4-wk intervals to a maximum of 40 mg daily or until control was achieved or the end of the study reached. At the end of the 12-wk titration phase, there was a follow-up period during which measurements were made after discontinuation of the medication. Mean supine diastolic pressure decreased from baseline (98.5 ± 2.6 mm Hg) during the titration phase (86.3 ± 4.6 mm Hg) in the group taking enalapril once daily. In three of the eight patients in the once-daily group and five of eight in the twice-daily group, supine diastolic pressures fell below 90 mm Hg. Neither supine nor standing systolic pressure nor standing diastolic pressure decreased significantly from pretreatment levels during enalapril once or twice daily. Heart rates measured after 5 min supine rest were not altered by enalapril. Enalapril induced inhibition of converting enzyme activity at all dose levels and with both dosing schedules. No adverse effect attributable to enalapril occurred during the study. The data indicate that once-daily enalapril is safe and effective treatment for mild low-renin essential hypertension. © 1983.