1. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-null mice (Nppa-/-) exhibit cardiac hypertrophy at baseline and adverse cardiac remodelling in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pressure overload stress. Previous studies have suggested that natriuretic peptides could potentially oppose mineralocorticoid signalling at several levels, including suppression of adrenal aldosterone production, inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation or suppression of MR-mediated production of pro-inflammatory factors. Thus, we hypothesized that the MR blocker eplerenone would prevent the exaggerated left ventricular (LV) remodelling/fibrosis and dysfunction after TAC in Nppa-/-. 2. In the present study, Nppa-/- and wild-type Nppa+/+ mice fed eplerenone- or vehicle (oatmeal)-supplemented chow since weaning were subjected to TAC or sham operation. The daily dose of eplerenone administered was approximately 200 mg/kg. At 1 week after TAC, LV size and function were evaluated by echocardiogram and LV cross-sections were stained with picrosirius red for collagen volume measurement. Total RNA was extracted from the LV for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of osteopontin. 3. Eplerenone had no effect on baseline hypertrophy observed in sham-operated Nppa-/- compared with Nppa+/+ mice. Eplerenone attenuated the TAC-induced increase in LV weight in both genotypes and completely prevented LV dilation, systolic dysfunction and interstitial collagen deposition seen in Nppa-/- mice after TAC. However, serum aldosterone levels were lower in Nppa-/- compared with Nppa+/+ wild types. No interaction between eplerenone and genotype in osteopontin mRNA levels was observed. 4. Eplerenone prevents adverse cardiac remodelling related to pressure overload in ANP-deficient mice, mainly due to an antifibrotic effect. The mechanism whereby ANP deficiency leads to excess hypertrophy, fibrosis and early failure following TAC is increased profibrotic signals resulting from excess or unopposed MR activation, rather than increased levels of aldosterone. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.