Objectives: Our objective was to define the relationship between renal dysfunction-both albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-and cardiac structure and diastolic dysfunction among patients with chronic hypertension. Methods: Both albuminuria and eGFR were measured in 540 asymptomatic patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction assessed by reduced early mitral annular relaxation velocity (E′). The majority of patients were white, mean age was 60±10 years, mean SBP was 149±18 mmHg, and there was a low prevalence comorbid conditions. Albuminuria was undetectable in 148 (27%), within the normal to low range [urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 1-25mg/g for men, 1-17mg/g for women] in 292 (54%), and high or very high (UACR >25mg/g for men, >17mg/g for women) in 100 (19%). Estimated GFR was 60ml/min per 1.73m or less in 75 (14%), 61-90ml/min per 1.73m in 244 (45%), and more than 90ml/min per 1.73m in 221 (41%). Results: Albuminuria, even within the normal range, was associated with greater left ventricular wall thickness (P=0.01), higher relative wall thickness (P=0.004), worse diastolic function reflected in lower E′ (P=0.01), greater arterial and left ventricular end-systolic stiffness (P<0.0001 and P=0.003, respectively), and higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level (P=0.0025), even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics. In contrast, no independent relationship was observed between eGFR and parameters of cardiac structure or function. Conclusion:: Among asymptomatic hypertensive patients with evidence of diastolic dysfunction, the presence of albuminuria, even within the normal range, is associated with greater concentric remodeling, greater left ventricular end-systolic stiffness, and worse diastolic function. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.