Osteosarcoma occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with a historic second incidence peak in the elderly. Most studies have focused on those occurring in adolescence. Detailed information on descriptive features and prognostic factors in patients of different age groups is lacking. We analyzed 381 osteosarcomas diagnosed between 1973 and 2012 to identify factors significantly associated with survival in various age groups. The peak incidence was seen in patients age <25, followed by a steady incidence rate thereafter until the sixth decade, when it started to decline. In the early onset diseases, significant factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) were tumor site and size; whereas those for overall survival (OS) were gender, tumor site, type, grade and size. In patients age 25 to 54, tumor type and grade were significant for RFS, and the pathologic type was significant for OS. In those age ≥55, race and tumor size were significant for RFS; tumor site and size were significant for OS. In multivariate analysis, tumor size remained significant for RFS; gender, tumor site and size maintained their significance for OS in patients age <25. While no independent factor was identified in patients age 25 to 54, tumor size remained significant for RFS in those age ≥55. Chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis was a prognosticator for RFS in patients age 25 to 54 by univariate analysis, but not as an independent factor in any stratified age group. Our data indicate that the distinctive prognostic factors differed significantly among different age groups, thus providing a rationale for age-based management strategies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.