We have previously shown that inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling attenuates hypoxia-induced inhibition of alveolar development and abnormal pulmonary vascular remodeling in the newborn mice and that endothelin-A receptor (ETAR) antagonists prevent and reverse the vascular remodeling. The current study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-β signaling attenuates endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression and thereby reduces effects of hypoxia on the newborn lung. C57BL/6 mice were exposed from birth to 2 wk of age to either air or hypoxia (12% O 2) while being given either BQ610 (ETAR antagonist), BQ788 (ETBR antagonist), 1D11 (TGF-β neutralizing antibody), or vehicle. Lung function and development and TGF-β and ET-1 synthesis were assessed. Hypoxia inhibited alveolar development, decreased lung compliance, and increased lung resistance. These effects were associated with increased TGF-β synthesis and signaling and increased ET-1 synthesis. BQ610 (but not BQ788) improved lung function, without altering alveolar development or increased TGF-β signaling in hypoxia-exposed animals. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling reduced ET-1 in vivo, which was confirmed in vitro in mouse pulmonary endothelial, fibroblast, and epithelial cells. ETAR blockade improves function but not development of the hypoxic newborn lung. Reduction of ET-1 via inhibition of TGF-β signaling indicates that TGF-β is upstream of ET-1 during hypoxiainduced signaling in the newborn lung. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.