© 2014 John Wiley. Data from Cardiac Transplant Research Database (CTRD) were analyzed from 1999 to 2006 to examine the effects of different induction strategies at the time of cardiac transplantation. A total of 2090 primary heart transplants were categorized by induction with interleukin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2RB), antithymocyte globulin (ATG), or no induction (NI). Probabilities for rejection and infection were estimated with parametric time-related models. Using these models, hazard was calculated for two theoretical patient profiles, one at lower risk for rejection and higher risk of infection (Profile 1) and higher risk for rejection and lower risk of infection (Profile 2). Of the 2090 transplants, 49.8% (1095) did not receive induction, 27.3% (599) received IL-2RB, and 18.0% (396) received ATG. Profile 1 patients had lower hazard for rejection with IL-2RB compared to ATG and NI (p < 0.01), but at the cost of increased risk of infection (5.0 vs. 1.8 vs. 1.6, respectively, at four wk, p < 0.01). Profile 2 patients experienced a fivefold decreased hazard for rejection when treated with IL-2RB compared with ATG and NI (p < 0.01). In patients at high risk of infection, IL-2RB reduced risk of rejection but at the expense of increased hazard for infection.