Whether intensive pharmacologic cardiovascular risk factor management reduces metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence is unknown. The authors compared the number of secondary prevention medications and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III)-defined MetS prevalence in coronary artery disease patients entering cardiac rehabilitation from 1996 to 2001 (period 1, n=516) with those entering from 2002 to 2006 (period 2, n=609). Age, sex, and ethnicity were similar in both periods. From period 1 to period 2, participants took more secondary prevention medications (2.8+/-1.3 vs 3.5+/-1.0, P<.001). Prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (66% vs 66%), diabetes (37% vs 38%), and hypertension (81% vs 81%) were unchanged. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia decreased (48% vs 36%, P<.001), but the proportion meeting criteria for elevated waist circumference increased (51% vs 58%, P<.05), resulting in no change in overall MetS prevalence (60% vs 59%, P=NS). More emphasis on therapeutic lifestyle change in addition to intensive pharmacologic therapy is needed to reduce MetS prevalence in patients with coronary artery disease.