High density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) reduce inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We tested the hypothesis that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F prevents LPS-induced defects in blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured in rats at baseline and 6 h after injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) or saline vehicle. Subgroups of LPS-treated rats also received 4F (10 mg/kg) or scrambled 4F (Sc-4F). LPS administration reduced SBP by 35% compared with baseline. 4F attenuated the reduction in SBP in LPS-treated rats (17% reduction), while Sc-4F was without effect. Ex vivo studies showed a reduced contractile response to phenylephrine (PE) in aortae of LPS-treated rats (ED50 = 459 ± 83 nM) compared with controls (ED50 = 57 ± 6 nM). This was associated with nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) upregulation. 4F administration improved vascular contractility (ED50 = 60 ± 9 nM), reduced aortic NOS2 protein, normalized plasma levels of NO metabolites, and reduced mortality in LPS-treated rats. These changes were associated with a reduction in plasma endotoxin activity. In vivo administration of 14C-4F and Bodipy-LPS resulted in their colocalization and retention in the HDL fraction.jlr It is proposed that 4F promotes the localization of LPS to the HDL fraction, resulting in endotoxin neutralization. 4F may thus prevent LPS-induced hemodynamic changes associated with NOS2 induction. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.