OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk-factor treatment and control in older adults with normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and diabetes mellitus and whether those with diabetes mellitus had better risk factor control than older adults with normal fasting glucose. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from population-based, prospective cohort study of risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in older people (Cardiovascular Health Study). SETTING: Community-based. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol and its subfractions, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. RESULTS: There were 579 (18%) cohort members with diabetes mellitus (77% receiving antidiabetic medication, 23% with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL and no treatment), 213 (6%) with impaired fasting glucose, and 2, 582 (77%) with normal fasting glucose. Of diabetic participants, 12% had recommended fasting glucose levels of less than 110 mg/dL. Of participants with hypertension, a larger proportion of diabetic participants than nondiabetic participants (89% versus 75%, P <.01) was treated with antihypertensive agents, but a smaller proportion of diabetic participants had recommended blood pressure levels of 129/85 mmHg or lower than nondiabetic participants had recommended blood pressure levels of 139/89 mmHg or lower (27% vs 48%, P <.01). Diabetic dyslipidemic participants were treated less often with lipid-lowering therapy (26% versus 55%, P <.01) and achieved recommended low-density lipoprotein goals less often (8% versus 54%, P <.01) than nondiabetic dyslipidemic participants. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, treatment and control of cardiovascular risk factors were suboptimal in this older population, especially among those with diabetes mellitus. Optimizing risk-factor control can improve health outcomes in older adults with and without diabetes mellitus.