A genetically engineered, nonneurotropic herpes simplex virus (R7020) with a proven safety profile in both animals and humans was found effective in the treatment of large xenotransplanted tumors arising from a radiation- and chemotherapy-resistant human epidermoid carcinoma and a hormone- refractory prostate adenocarcinoma. R7020 replicated to high titer and caused rapid regression of the human tumor xenografts. Tumor destruction was accelerated in animals given both R7020 and fractionated ionizing radiation. Tumors arising from cells surviving one treatment with R7020 were fully susceptible to a second dose of virus. We conclude R7020 is an effective antitumor agent for non-central nervous system tumor xenografts with an excellent safety profile.