Supplementation with carotene-rich fruits may be an effective and sustainable approach to prevent vitamin A deficiency. To test the effectiveness of mango supplementation, 176 Gambian children, aged 2 to 7 y, were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 75 g of dried mango containing ∼150 μg retinol activity equivalents with (MF) or without (M) 5 g of fat, 5 d/wk for 4 mo or 60,000 μg of vitamin A (A) or placebo (P) capsule at baseline. After 4 mo, plasma β-carotene was greater in both the M (P < 0.05) and MF (P < 0.07) groups compared with the P group. After controlling for baseline plasma retinol, elevated acute phase proteins and age, plasma retinol concentrations in the A and MF, but not M, groups were higher than in the P group at the end of the study (P < 0.01). Increases in retinol concentrations, however, were small in both groups. These results support the use of dietary supplementation with dried mangoes and a source of fat as one of several concurrent strategies that can be used to help maintain vitamin A status of children in developing countries where there is a severe seasonal shortage of carotenoid-rich foods.