PURPOSE. To determine the expression patterns of α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors in the mouse exorbital lacrimal gland (LG). An α- and β-receptor agonist and antagonist were used to elucidate the receptors' relevance to protein secretion. METHODS. Mouse LGs were processed for single- and double-labeled indirect immunofluorescence studies and examined with confocal scanning microscopy. Protein secretion was measured from gland fragments in response to adrenergic agonists. RESULTS. Extensive α1-immunoreactiVity (IR) was found on the surface and cytoplasm of acinar cells and much more α1-IR in the interstitial areas. In contrast, more β1-IR was found in the LG, and most β1-IR appeared to concentrate in the cytoplasm of acinar cells, with almost no β1-IR in the interstitial areas. The protein secretion in response to phenylephrine and isoproterenol showed that direct stimulation of either the α1- or β1-receptor could induce significant protein secretion from LGs. The specificity of this stimulation was further indicated by the effects of adrenergic antagonists. No synergism was observed between α1- and β-receptor-mediated protein secretions. CONCLUSIONS. The results support the notion that there is extensive adrenergic control in the mouse LG. The adrenergic receptors may be a better choice of markers, compared with tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, to reflect the extent of adrenergic control because circulating norepinephrine in the bloodstream should be taken into consideration. Both confocal microscopy observations and protein secretion data suggest the presence of α1- and β1-mediated pathways in the mouse LG. Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.