PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review integrates recent reports related to the dietary management of prostate cancer with the existing body of science in an effort to best inform practicing clinicians. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary factors are hypothesized to play a significant role in prostate cancer, and have proven to be important in managing prevalent comorbidities in this patient population (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis). Data regarding diet and prostate cancer are accumulating and randomized controlled trials are underway which will ultimately yield evidence on which to base recommendations regarding dietary regimens, functional foods, and supplement use. Until that time, most data derive from epidemiologic studies that have limitations in showing cause and effect. During the past year, the greatest and most consistent strides have been made in the area of energy balance, with data consistently showing that overweight and obesity are associated with progressive disease and increased overall mortality. SUMMARY: To date, the strongest evidence regarding diet and prostate cancer relates to energy balance. Urologists aspiring to best clinical practice should encourage their patients to achieve a healthful body weight through regular exercise and a healthful plant-based diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Advocating functional foods or supplements explicitly for cancer control purposes would currently be premature. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.