PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between stages of change, other psychosocial factors, and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among rural African-Americans participating in a 5 a Day study. DESIGN: The cross-sectional design assessed associations between F&V intake, stage of change, self-efficacy, beliefs, barriers, and social support. SETTING: Participants were surveyed by telephone. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 3557 adult church members (response rate, 79.1%), aged 18 and over from 10 North Carolina counties. MEASURES: A seven-item food frequency measured F&V intake. Stage of change was measured using four items; other psychosocial variables were measured using Likert scales. Chi-square tests and analysis of variance were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: The majority of participants (65%) were in the preparation stage of change. Individuals in action/maintenance consumed an average of 6.5 daily F&V servings compared to 3.3 to 3.5 servings for those in precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Self-efficacy, social support, and belief about how many daily F&V servings are needed, were positively associated with stage. Barriers were most prevalent among precontemplators. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the applicability of the stages-of-change model to dietary change among rural African-Americans. The relationship between stage, self-efficacy, social support, and barriers supports using a multicomponent intervention strategy.