Enterolactone, a major metabolite of plant-based lignans, has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer growth and development, but the mechanistic basis for its anticancer activity remains largely unknown. Activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is critical for prostate cancer cell growth and progression. This study examined whether the growth inhibitory effect of enterolactone was related to changes in the IGF-1/IGF-1R system in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. At nutritionally relevant concentrations (20-60 μmol/L), enterolactone inhibited IGF-1-induced activation of IGF-1R and its downstream AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal regulated kinase signaling pathways. Inhibition of AKT by enterolactone resulted in decreased phosphorylation of its downstream targets, including p70S6K1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β Enterolactone also inhibited cyclin D1 expression. As a result, enterolactone inhibited proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells. Knockdown of IGF-1R by plasmids with siRNA (si) against IGF-1R mRNA resulted in inhibition of proliferation of PC-3 cells and cell numbers did not differ when the si-IGF-IR groups (cells transfected with plasmids containing siRNA against IGF-1R mRNA) were treated or untreated with enterolactone. These results suggest that enterolactone suppresses proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells, at least partially, through inhibition of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling. The finding of this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that enterolactone exerts against prostate cancer. © 2009 American Society for Nutrition.