BACKGROUND: Treatment summaries and follow-up care plan information should be provided to cancer survivors. This study examines the association of receiving summaries and care plans with cancer survivor self-efficacy for chronic illness management, and whether self-efficacy was associated with health care utilization. METHODS: Four hundred forty-one cancer survivors (≥2 years from diagnosis and had completed treatment) ≥65 years old from 12 cancer centers across 5 states completed telephone surveys. Survivors responded to three questions about receiving a written treatment summary, written follow-up plan, and an explanation of follow-up care plans. Respondents completed the Stanford Chronic Illness Management Self-Efficacy Scale and reported emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the past year. Three multiple linear regression models estimated the association of written treatment summary, written follow-up care plan, and verbal explanation of follow-up plan with total self-efficacy score. Log-binomial models estimated the association of self-efficacy scores with emergency room visits and hospitalizations (yes/no). RESULTS: Among survivors, 40% and 35% received a written treatment summary and follow-up care plan, respectively. Seventy-nine percent received an explanation of follow-up care plans. Receiving a verbal explanation of follow-up care instructions was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy scores (β = 0.72, p = .009). Higher self-efficacy scores were significantly associated with lower prevalence ratios of emergency room visits (prevalence ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97) and hospitalizations (prevalence ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.99). CONCLUSION: Explanation of the follow-up care plan, beyond the written component, enhances survivor self-efficacy for managing cancer as a chronic condition-an important mediator for improving health care utilization outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Older cancer survivors (>65 years) are especially vulnerable to poor outcomes in survivorship because of the complexity of follow-up care and other chronic conditions. Delivering written treatment summaries, written follow-up care plans, and verbal explanations of follow-up care plans all independently increased the self-efficacy for chronic illness management among older survivors. In particular, delivering this information in the verbal format was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy and, subsequently, a lower likelihood of emergency room visits. Understanding the mechanism through which summaries and follow-up care plans may positively influence survivor health is critical to increasing the delivery of the information.